September 21, 2023

A Complete Guide to Fibre Optic Internet

gigabit fibre optic internet

gigabit fibre optic internet

Gigabit fibre optic internet: With the dependency on the internet increasing over days, a broadband connection has become inevitable, whether it is a home setup or a business.  Moreover, everyone now expects high-speed internet for fast downloads and uploads. With this kind of demand, the most suitable technology will be fibre optic technology. We can say that fibre optic technology is the future of broadband to deliver the fastest speed that can spike up to 1 GBPS. Let us learn everything about fibre optic internet and how it works, and what its advantages are.

What does Fibre mean?

Fibre Optic Technology is becoming the preferred choice of the majority of Internet Service Providers as they can expect a higher rate of customer satisfaction with fibre optic internet connections.

Fibre optic internet in India, also known as fibre, is highly reliable and capable of delivering high-speed connections that can go up to 1000 Mbps which is the need of the day. These connections are less affected by severe weather conditions when compared to other technologies used in a broadband connection. That means the outages will be minimised with fibre optic internet. 

Fibre optic internet connections enable the flow of data through multiple fibre optic strands made of pure glass. Light beams are sent through each strand to carry digital data over long distances. 

Fibre and ethernet are different with only the similarity of being wired connections and providing reliable internet access.

How does fibre optic internet function?

Fibrenet or fibre internet is the latest broadband connection, and it has drastically transformed the data transmitted from one location to another. The data can now be transmitted across the world at the speed of light using fibre optic technology. The fibre optic internet connection is popular owing to its fastest speed. The high speeds ensure faster uploads and downloads, a better streaming and gaming experience and video calls with no disruptions. The other notable advantages of the high speed are cloud backup in a matter of seconds, file uploads in real-time, faster downloads, and less lag or buffering while playing online games.

Having understood the fundamentals of fibre internet let us move further to learn about the functioning of fibre optic internet connection.

The state-of-art technology of fibre internet comprises numerous components. The key components are the optical fibres and the last mile.

Optical Fibres

These fibres are extremely thin, with an approximate diameter of 125 microns. They are split into two sections, i.e., the heart and the cladding The heart is the innermost part of the fibre made of glass to allow light to pass through. The cladding wraps around the centre. As a result, the cladding is made of a thicker layer of glass or plastic. 

The two components are combined to form cables that transmit LED light or laser pulses down the line. They transport binary data, the coding system used on the internet. It can typically travel up to 60 miles before losing its effectiveness. 

The last mile

When the light pulses reach their destination, an Optical Network Terminal (ONT) converts them into electrical signals. This, in turn, enables the light to connect to the internet and your devices. The last mile is the last leg of fibre that connects one to the backbone of the internet.

The ISPs use various types of last-mile connections while installing broadband connections, which mainly depends on the quality of the fibre connection.

What does Optical Network Terminal (ONT) mean?

The Optical Network Terminal is the bridge between the fibre network you are using and your home. It is generally installed in inconspicuous places like a garage or the outside of your home and plays a key role in bringing the fibre internet to your home via your ISP. It will be installed after your purchase the fibre internet plan from your ISP. If your house has had fibre optic internet services earlier, then an ONT will be already present, and the same can be made use of for the new connection.

What does Passive Optic Network mean?

A passive optic network system is required to connect the fibre cabling of an ISP and signals to the end user. A PON system connects a subscriber to an ISP to provide a broadband internet connection to a location. There are different types of PON systems depending on where the PON terminates. 

FTTC (Fibre-to-the-cabinet)

In this type of PON, the cable connection is not from the ISP to your home but the cable is connected to a metal cabinet in your neighbourhood. 

In this PON system, both fibre optic cables as well as copper are used to minimise the cost. The fibre optic cables run from the ISP to the metal cabinet, and from there, copper wires are used to bring the connection to your home. FTTC also has a DLM feature, i.e., a dynamic line management feature which is automated and keeps the connection stable, fast, and error-free. gigabit fibre optic internet

FTTP/FTTH (Fibre to the premises or Fibre to the home)

In this type of PON, the cable connection is from the ISP to your home. This enables faster speed and minimises latency.

FTTB (Fibre to the building)

This is the most preferred type of connection for apartments, hotels and schools where multiple access has to be provided.

What is GPON and EPON?

GPON, i.e.Gigabit Passive Optical Network, is the nextgen PON standard. A point-to-multipoint access network is what the Gigabit fibre optic network is. The main feature of GPON is the use of passive splitters in the fibre optic distribution network. This enables a single feeding fibre from an ISP to provide internet connections to multiple homes or businesses \.

GPON employs Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) for voice, Ethernet for data, and proprietary encapsulation for voice. It uses fixed-sized cells rather than variable-sized data packets and provides a higher speed than EPON, i.e., Ethernet Passive Optical Network.

EPON is also another popular version of PON. Since EPON is compatible with other Ethernet standards, no encapsulation is necessary while connecting to Ethernet-based networks on both ends. No protocol conversion is required either, as Ethernet is the primary networking technology used in LAN and in metro-area networks (MANs). gigabit fibre optic internet

Advantages of PON

The following are the advantages of PON in fibre optic internet in India.

  • It is economical
  • It provides the highest speed.
  • The internet connection provided is reliable.
  • Has a flexible and scalable design.

Does Fibre Optic Internet need a modem?

The Optic Network Terminal replaces a modem in fibre optic internet. The ONT at your home does the job of a modem and converts the optical signals from your fibre optic internet connection to an Ethernet port or another device like a router or a gateway. Your router or gateway should be able to deliver the Gigabit speed provided by a fibre connection, but it is not fibre specific. The other devices will be connected by the router or the gateway to forming a home network. gigabit fibre optic internet


With the growing demand for high-speed internet connection with consistency and reliability, fibre optic internet is the order of the day. Wherever consistent and high-speed connection is required, like large businesses, telemedicine, gaming, and remote working, fibre optic internet scores over other technologies employed. 


Can I set up a fibre optic internet connection for my home by myself?

You can self-install fibre internet by following the steps given below, provided your Internet Service Provider does not require skilled personnel to set up your connection.

  • The fibre network terminal has to be identified.
  • Your network box and the fibre network terminal have to be connected.
  • Your network box has to be plugged in.
  • Your device has to be connected to the network box.
  • The final step is to set up your home WiFi network.

Explain the working of fibre optic internet?

Fibre-optic lines comprise hundreds of small strands of glass or plastic cables. The size of each strand glass or plastic strand will be 1/10th the size of a human hair strand. Fibre internet uses light pulses that travel at approximately t

What are the three key components of fibre optic internet connection?

The three key components of fibre optic internet connection are the core, the cladding and the coating.

Name the two types of fibre optic cables?

The two types of fibre optic cables are multi-mode and single-mode. As the name suggests, multimode fibre can carry multiple light rays (modes) simultaneously as it has various optical properties concentrated at the core. The core of the single mode fibre is much smaller and measures 9 microns. gigabit fibre optic internet

Name the two key factors for the installation of fibre optic cable?

The two critical factors are cable pulling tension and the bend radius.